Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation on a Child Age 8 or Older or on an Adult:
1. Make sure the person is lying on a hard, flat surface. Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear. If an object is present, try to sweep it out with your fingers (wear disposable surgical gloves if they are available). Apply the Heimlich maneuver if unsuccessful and the object is blocking the airway. If vomiting occurs, turn the person on his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers. Do not place your finger in the mouth if the person is rigid or is having a seizure.
2. Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway. Put upward pressure on the jaw to pull it forward.
3. Pinch the nostrils closed with thumb and index finger. Place your mouth tightly over the personís mouth. Use a mouthpiece if one is available. Blow two quick breaths and watch for the personís chest to rise.
4. Release the nostrils. Look for the personís chest to fall as he or she exhales. Listen for the sounds of breathing. Feel for the personís breath on your cheek. If the person does not start breathing on his or her own, repeat the procedure.
Mouth-to-Mouth-and-Nose Resuscitation on a Child Under Age 8 or on an Infant:
Place the child on a hard, flat surface.
Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear. If an object is present, try to sweep it out with your fingers. If unsuccessful and the object is blocking the airway, apply the Heimlich maneuver (see p. 1205). If vomiting occurs, turn the child onto his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers.
Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway.
Place your mouth tightly over the nose and mouth. Blow two quick, shallow breaths (smaller breaths than you would give to an adult). Watch for the chest to rise.
Remove your mouth. Look for the chest to fall as the child exhales.
Listen for the sounds of breathing. Feel for the childís breath on your cheek. If breathing does not start on its own, repeat the procedure.
CPR on a Child 8 Years or Older or on an Adult:
1. Lay the person on a hard, flat surface. Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear. If an object is present, try to sweep it out with your fingers. Use disposable surgical gloves if they are available. If vomiting occurs, turn the person on his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers. Do not place fingers in the mouth if there is rigidity or if the person is having a seizure.
2. Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway. Put upward pressure on the jaw to pull it forward.
3. Look for the personís chest to rise and fall. Listen for the sounds of breathing. Feel for the personís breath on your cheek.
4. If the person is at all responsive (if he or she is moaning, breathing, blinking, or moving any part of the body), his or her heart is beating; do not perform steps 6 or 7.
If the person is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, even if the heart is beating. If the person is breathing, cover with a blanket or clothing as for shock.
If the person is not responsive, feel for a pulse on the carotid artery. The artery is in the groove of the neck (see above) off to the side of the Adamís apple. If you do not feel a pulse, go to step 5 immediately.
5. If the person is not breathing, pinch the nostrils closed with your thumb and index finger. Place your mouth tightly over the personís mouth (use a mouthpiece if one is available). Blow two quick breaths and watch for the personís chest to rise. Release the nostrils.
6. If the heart is not beating, kneel
at the personís right side. With the fingers of your right hand, find the bottom of the breastbone (in the center where the ribs meet). Place your index and middle fingers side by side, just above the bottom of the breastbone. Place the heel of your left hand just above your fingers, on the breastbone. Move your right hand and place it on top of the left, and interlock the fingers of the two hands.
7. With your elbows straight, push down briskly (about 2 inches) with the heel of your hand 15 times over about 10 seconds. Let the chest rise after each compression.
CPR for an adult includes 15 chest compressions and two breaths. You may have to repeat the 15 chest compressions and two breaths multiple times. Push down on the chest 80 to 100 times per minute. Continue until breathing begins or help arrives. Count out loud: ď1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5,Ē until you reach 15. Release your hands. Repeat step 5 and watch for the personís chest to fall. Feel for air being exhaled. Repeat, starting at step 5.
CPR on a Child Under Age 8:
Basic CPR on a child is five chest compressions and one breath. You may have to repeat the five compressions and one breath multiple times. You will push down on the chest 100 to 120 times per minute. Continue until breathing begins or help arrives.
Kneel next to the child.
With the fingers of the hand that is closest to the childís feet, find the bottom of the breastbone.
Place the heel of one hand below the nipples and above the bottom of the breastbone and push down forcefully, 1 1/2 inches with each compression; then let the chest rise. Count out loud: ď1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5.Ē
Then tilt the childís head back slightly and form a seal with your mouth over the childís mouth and nose (see Mouth-to-Mouth-and-Nose Resuscitation on a Child Under Age 8 or on an Infant. Blow one breath so that the chest rises.
Continue, alternating five compressions and one breath, until help arrives.
CPR on an Infant:
Basic CPR on an infant is five chest compressions and one breath.
1. To find a pulse, locate the brachial artery in the upper arm. It is located on the underside of the arm between muscle and bone. Use two fingers to feel for the pulse.
2. If the baby is not breathing, tilt the head back slightly to open the airway. Put a washcloth or thin pad of clothing under the babyís shoulders. This keeps the head from assuming its naturally forward position. Form a seal with your mouth over the babyís mouth and nose. Blow one breath (a smaller breath than you would give to an adult), so that the babyís chest rises.
3. If the baby has no pulse, use two fingers to perform chest compressions. Place your fingers one finger width below an imaginary line connecting the infantís nipples. Push down 1 inch with each compression. Count out loud: ď1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5.Ē You may have to repeat the five compressions and one breath multiple times. You will push down on the chest 120 times per minute. Continue, alternating five compressions and one breath, until help arrives.
Control Bleeding With Pressure:
Bleeding is the most visible result of an injury. Each of us has between five and six quarts of blood in our body. Most people can lose a small amount of blood with no problem, but if a quart or more is quickly lost, it could lead to shock and/or death. One of the best ways to treat bleeding is to place a clean cloth on the wound and apply pressure with the palm of your hand until the bleeding stops. You should also elevate the wound above the victim's heart, if possible, to slow down the bleeding at the wound site. Once the bleeding stops, do not try to remove the cloth that is against the open wound as it could disturb the blood clotting and restart the bleeding. If the bleeding is very serious, apply pressure to the nearest major pressure point, located either on the inside of the upper arm between the shoulder and elbow, or in the groin area where the leg joins the body. Direct pressure is better than a pressure point or a tourniquet because direct pressure stops blood circulation only at the wound. Only use the pressure points if elevation and direct pressure haven't controlled the bleeding. Never use a tourniquet (a device, such as a bandage twisted tight with a stick, to control the flow of blood) except in response to an extreme emergency, such as a severed arm or leg. Tourniquets can damage nerves and blood vessels and can cause the victim to lose an arm or leg.
Treat Physical Shock Quickly:
Shock can threaten the life of the victim of an injury if it is not treated quickly. Even if the injury doesn't directly cause death, the victim can go into shock and die. Shock occurs when the body's important functions are threatened by not getting enough blood or when the major organs and tissues don't receive enough oxygen. Some of the symptoms of shock are a pale or bluish skin color that is cold to the touch, vomiting, dull and sunken eyes, and unusual thirst. Shock requires medical treatment to be reversed, so all you can do is prevent it from getting worse. You can maintain an open airway for breathing, control any obvious bleeding and elevate the legs about 12 inches unless an injury makes it impossible. You can also prevent the loss of body heat by covering the victim (over and under) with blankets. Don't give the victim anything to eat or drink because this may cause vomiting. Generally, keep the victim lying flat on the back.
A victim who is unconscious or bleeding from the mouth should lie on one side so breathing is easier. Someone needs to stay with the victim until medical help arrives (if possible).
Move The Injured Person Only When Absolutely Necessary:
Never move an injured person unless there is a fire, flooding or other serious dangers are involved. The major concern with moving an injured person is making the injury worse, which is especially true with spinal cord injuries. If you must move an injured person, try to drag him or her by the clothing around the neck or shoulder area. If possible, drag the person onto a blanket or large cloth and then drag the blanket.
Perform The Heimlich Maneuver On Choking Victims:
Ask the victim to cough, speak, or breathe. If the victim can do none of these things, stand behind the victim and locate the bottom rib with your hand. Move your hand across the abdomen to the area above the navel then make a fist and place your thumb side on the stomach. Place your other hand over your fist and press into the victim's stomach with a quick upward thrust until the food is dislodged.
Flush Burns Immediately With Water:
There are a many different types of burns. They can be thermal burns, chemical burns, electrical burns or contact burns. Each of the burns can occur in a different way, but treatment for them is very similar. For thermal, chemical or contact burns, the first step is to run cold water over the burn for a minimum of 30 minutes. If the burn is small enough, keep it completely under water. Flushing the burn takes priority over calling for help. Flush the burn First. If the victim's clothing is stuck to the burn, don't try to remove it. Remove clothing that is not stuck to the burn by cutting or tearing it. Cover the burn with a clean, cotton material. If you do not have clean, cotton material, do not cover the burn with anything. Do not scrub the burn and do not apply any soap, ointment, or home remedies. Also, don't offer the burn victim anything to drink or eat, but keep the victim covered with a blanket to maintain a normal body temperature until medical help arrives.
If the victim has received an electrical burn, the treatment is a little different. Don't touch a victim who has been in contact with electricity unless you are clear of the power source. If the victim is still in contact with the power source, electricity will travel through the victim's body and electrify you when you reach to touch. Once the victim is clear of the power source, your priority is to check for any airway obstruction, and to check breathing and circulation. Administer CPR if necessary. Once the victim is stable, begin to run cold water over the burns for a minimum of 30 minutes. Don't move the victim and don't scrub the burns or apply any soap, ointment, or home remedies. After flushing the burn, apply a clean, cotton cloth to the burn. If cotton is not available, don't use anything. Keep the victim warm and still and try to maintain a normal body temperature until medical help arrives.
Use Cool Treatment For Heat Exhaustion Or Stroke:
Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are two different things, although they are commonly confused as the same condition. Heat exhaustion can occur anywhere there is poor air circulation, such as around an open furnace or heavy machinery, or even if the person is poorly adjusted to very warm temperatures. The body reacts by increasing the heart rate and strengthening blood circulation. Simple heat exhaustion can occur due to loss of body fluids and salts. The symptoms are usually excessive fatigue, dizziness and disorientation, normal skin temperature but a damp and clammy feeling. To treat heat exhaustion, move to the victim to a cool spot and encourage drinking of cool water and rest.
Heat stroke is much more serious and occurs when the body's sweat glands have shut down. Some symptoms of heat stroke are mental confusion, collapse, unconsciousness, fever with dry, mottled skin. A heat stroke victim will die quickly, so don't wait for medical help to arrive--assist immediately. The first thing you can do is move the victim to a cool place out of the sun and begin pouring cool water over the victim. Fan the victim to provide good air circulation until medical help arrives.
Signs and Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of this dangerous condition which can become life-threatening are: shivering, dizziness, numbness, confusion, weakness, impaired judgment, impaired vision and drowsiness.
Hypothermia victims pass through 5 stages, with each stage more serious and leading to death!
Stage 1 Shivering
Stage 2 Apathy
Stage 3 Loss of Consciousness
Stage 4 Decreasing Pulse and Breathing Rate
Stage 5 Death
Seek professional help. Get victim out of the cold and into dry clothing. Warm the body Slowly! Give nothing to eat or drink unless victim is Fully Conscious! If trained, monitor airway, breathing & circulation.
Be extremely careful and gentle when treating eye injuries.
Floating objects in the eye which can be visualized may be flushed from the eye with water. If the object cannot be removed in this manner, the victim should seek medical attention.
Never attempt to remove objects imbedded in the eye!
First Aid care for these injuries consists of bandaging BOTH eyes and seeking professional care promptly! An inverted paper cup covered with a bandage is appropriate for serious eye injuries while the victim is transported to the hospital.
For chemical burns of the eye, wash the eye with copious amounts of water for 15 to 30 minutes. Then wrap a bandage around both eyes and seek professional help.
Eyes are delicate and sight is precious! Prompt professional attention to eye injuries is required to preserve sight!
Severe nosebleed can be most frightening. It can also lead to shock if enough blood is lost! Many cases of nosebleed can be controlled simply by having the victim sit down, pinch the nostrils shut and lean forward (to prevent blood from running into the throat).
Once the bleeding has been stopped, talking, walking and blowing the nose may disturb blood clots and allow the bleeding to resume. The victim should rest quietly until it appears the bleeding remains stopped.
If it is suspected that the victim has suffered head, neck or back injuries Do Not attempt to control the blood flow as they may cause increased pressure on injured tissue.
All uncontrolled nosebleeds require prompt medical attention!
Animal bites carry a high risk of infection and require professional attention promptly!
Infection may develop hours, or days, after an animal bite. Signs and symptoms of infection are pain & tenderness at the wound site, redness, heat, swelling, pus at the wound site, red streaks in the skin around the wound and possible swollen glands closest to the wound.
First aid care for animal bites includes washing the wound well with soap and water, if there is no heavy bleeding. Then cover the wound and seek professional attention. A serious wound should be cleaned only by trained medical personnel.
Insect bites and stings can be life-threatening to people with severe allergy to the insect's venom!
Signs and symptoms of allergic reaction include pain, swelling of the throat, redness or discoloration at the site of the bite, itching, hives, decreased consciousness and difficult or noisy breathing.
First aid calls for being alert for signs of allergic reaction or shock and seeking medical attention as quickly as possible for these victims!
If a stinger remains in the victim, you may try to remove it carefully with a tweezers or by scraping with the edge of a credit card. Be careful not to squeeze the stinger as this will inject more venom.
Once a stinger has been removed, the wound should be washed well with soap and water. Cold compresses will help relieve pain and swelling. The stung area should be kept lower than the heart to slow circulation of the venom.
Remember, in all cases of insect bites, watch for signs of allergic reaction and if they appear, seek professional medical attention without delay!
Fractures, Sprains, Strains and Dislocations
Fractures, sprains, strains and dislocations may be hard for the lay person to tell apart. For this reason, first aid treatment of any of these conditions is handled as though the injury was a fracture.
Signs and symptoms of the above conditions may include a "grating" sensation of bones rubbing together, pain, tenderness, swelling, bruising and an inability to move the injured part.
First Aid for any of these conditions consists of:
* Control bleeding, if present.
* Care for shock.
* Splint affected area to prevent further movement, but do so only if possible without causing further pain to victim.
* Cold packs may help reduce pain and swelling.
Victims with traumatic injuries, such as those caused by automobile accidents, falls etc. should not be moved except by trained rescue workers. Head, neck and back injuries are serious and require special care for movement and transport of victims with these conditions. In exceptional circumstances, such as when a victim is at risk of further injury unless moved, the victim's head and neck should be stabilized and the body moved with minimal flexing of the head, neck or spinal cord.
All victims with fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains require professional medical attention.
Keep A First Aid Kit Checklist:
In order to administer effective first aid, it is important to maintain adequate supplies in each first aid kit. First aid kits can be purchased commercially already stocked with the necessary supplies, or one can be made by including the following items:
[Modify to suit your particular needs]
* Activated Charcoal (for poisoning emergencies)
* Adhesive strip bandages - assorted sizes
* Adhesive tape - see first aid tape
* Alcohol - rubbing 70%
* Alcohol wipes
* Analgesic or equivalent
* Antibiotic ointment
* Baking soda
* Benadryl or equivalent
* Butterfly closures: these hold wound edges firmly together.
* Calamine lotion
* Chemical ice packs
* Chemical hot packs
* Cotton balls
* Cotton swabs
* Decongestant tablets & spray
* Diarrhea medication
* Disposable latex or vinyl gloves
* Elastic bandages
* Face mask for CPR
* First aid cream
* First aid guide
* First Aid Tapes: Various types of tapes should be included in each kit. These include adhesive, which is waterproof and extra strong for times when rigid strapping is needed; clear, which stretches with the body's movement, good for visible wounds; cloth, recommended for most first aid taping needs, including taping heavy dressings (less irritating than adhesive); and paper, which is recommended for sensitive skin and is used for light and frequently changed dressings.
* Gauze pads - various sizes
* Hot-water bottle
* Household ammonia
* Hydrocortisone cream .5%
* Hydrogen Peroxide
* Hypoallergenic tape
* Ice bag
* Insect repellent
* Insect sting swabs
* Meat tenderizer (for insect bites)
* Nonstick Sterile Pads or Non-Adhering Dressings [Telfa]: these are soft, super absorbent pads that provide a good environment for wound healing. These are recommended for bleeding and draining wounds, burns, infections.
* Oil of Cloves
* Over-the-counter pain medication [aspirin]
* Paper & pencil
* Paper drinking cups
* Roller guaze - self adhering
* Safety pins
* Space blanket
* Sam splint
* Sugar or glucose solution
* Syrup of Ipecac
* Thermometer - oral & rectal
* Tongue blades
* Triangular bandages
* Waterproof tape