Grohmann, G.S., A.M. Murphy, P.J. Christopher, E. Auty and H.B. Greenberg. 1981. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis in volunteers consuming depurated oysters. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science. 59:219-228.
Hay, B. and P. Scotti. 1986. Evidence from intracellular absorption of virus by the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 20:655-659.
Hejkal, T.W. & C.P. Gerba. 1981. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 41(1):207-211.
Koff, R.S. and H.S. sear. 1967. Internal temperature of steamed clams. New England Journal of Medicine. 276:737-739.
LaBelle, R.L., C.P. Gerba, S.M. Goyal, J.L. Melnick, I. Cech & G.F. Bogdan. 1980. Relationships between environmental factors, bacterial indicators, and the occurrence of enteric viruses in estuarine sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 39(3):588-596.
Lo, S., J. Gilbert and F. Hetrick. 1976. Stability of human enterovirus in estuarine and marine waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 32:245-249.
Larkin, E.P. and D.A. Hunt. 1982. Bivalve mollusks: control of microbial contaminants. Bioscience. 32(3):193-197.
Landry, E.F., J.M. Vaughn, T.J. Vicale & R. Mann. 1983. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 45(1):238-247.
Mackowiak, P.A., C.T. Caraway and B.L. Portnoy. 1976. Oyster-associated hepatitis: lessons from the Louisiana experience. American Journal of Epidemiology. 103(2):181-191.
Metcalf, T.G., B. Mullin, D. Eckerson, E. Moulton & E.P. Larkin. 1979. Bioaccumulation and depuration of enteroviruses by the soft-shelled clam, Mya arenaria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 38(2):275-282.
NSSP Manual of Operations. 1989. Part I, Section C. United States Food and Drug Administration, Shellfish Sanitation Branch, Washington, DC.
Richards, G.P. 1988. Microbial purification of shellfish: a review of depuration and relaying. Journal of Food Protection. 51(3):218-251.
Scotti, P.D., G.C. Fletcher, D.H. Buisson and S. Fredericksen. 1983. Virus depuration of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science. 26:9-13.
Vaughn, J. and E.F. Landry. 1977. Virus study. Interim report series:6. Nassau-Suffolk Regional Planning Board. Hauppauge, NY.
Barnett, J. 1988. Seafood safety: the facts. Seafood Business. September/October. pp. 122-135.
DuPont, H.L. 1986. Consumption of raw shellfish - is the risk now unacceptable? New England Journal of Medicine. 314(11):707-708.
Greenberg, A.E. & D.A. Hunt (eds). 1984. Laboratory Procedures for the Examination of Seawater and Shellfish, 5th edition. American Public Health Association. Washington, DC
Horwitz, M.A. 1977. Specific diagnosis of foodborne disease. Gastroenterology. 73(2):375-381.
Leonard, D.L., M.A. Broutman & K.E. Harkness. 1989. The quality of shellfish growing waters on the East Coast of the United States. NOAA, National Estuarine Inventory. Rockville, MD
Liston, J. 1989. Current issues in food safety - especially seafoods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 89(7):911-913.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Division of Microbiology. 1984.
Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 6th edition. Association of Official and
Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA.
The Icons below will guide you to the other Seafood Safety Source Pages