Seafood Safety & Illness Sources

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Grohmann, G.S., A.M. Murphy, P.J. Christopher, E. Auty and H.B. Greenberg. 1981. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis in volunteers consuming depurated oysters. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science. 59:219-228.

Hay, B. and P. Scotti. 1986. Evidence from intracellular absorption of virus by the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 20:655-659.

Hejkal, T.W. & C.P. Gerba. 1981. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 41(1):207-211.

Koff, R.S. and H.S. sear. 1967. Internal temperature of steamed clams. New England Journal of Medicine. 276:737-739.

LaBelle, R.L., C.P. Gerba, S.M. Goyal, J.L. Melnick, I. Cech & G.F. Bogdan. 1980. Relationships between environmental factors, bacterial indicators, and the occurrence of enteric viruses in estuarine sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 39(3):588-596.

Lo, S., J. Gilbert and F. Hetrick. 1976. Stability of human enterovirus in estuarine and marine waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 32:245-249.

Larkin, E.P. and D.A. Hunt. 1982. Bivalve mollusks: control of microbial contaminants. Bioscience. 32(3):193-197.

Landry, E.F., J.M. Vaughn, T.J. Vicale & R. Mann. 1983. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 45(1):238-247.

Mackowiak, P.A., C.T. Caraway and B.L. Portnoy. 1976. Oyster-associated hepatitis: lessons from the Louisiana experience. American Journal of Epidemiology. 103(2):181-191.

Metcalf, T.G., B. Mullin, D. Eckerson, E. Moulton & E.P. Larkin. 1979. Bioaccumulation and depuration of enteroviruses by the soft-shelled clam, Mya arenaria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 38(2):275-282.

NSSP Manual of Operations. 1989. Part I, Section C. United States Food and Drug Administration, Shellfish Sanitation Branch, Washington, DC.

Richards, G.P. 1988. Microbial purification of shellfish: a review of depuration and relaying. Journal of Food Protection. 51(3):218-251.

Scotti, P.D., G.C. Fletcher, D.H. Buisson and S. Fredericksen. 1983. Virus depuration of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science. 26:9-13.

Vaughn, J. and E.F. Landry. 1977. Virus study. Interim report series:6. Nassau-Suffolk Regional Planning Board. Hauppauge, NY.

Barnett, J. 1988. Seafood safety: the facts. Seafood Business. September/October. pp. 122-135.

DuPont, H.L. 1986. Consumption of raw shellfish - is the risk now unacceptable? New England Journal of Medicine. 314(11):707-708.

Greenberg, A.E. & D.A. Hunt (eds). 1984. Laboratory Procedures for the Examination of Seawater and Shellfish, 5th edition. American Public Health Association. Washington, DC

Horwitz, M.A. 1977. Specific diagnosis of foodborne disease. Gastroenterology. 73(2):375-381.

Leonard, D.L., M.A. Broutman & K.E. Harkness. 1989. The quality of shellfish growing waters on the East Coast of the United States. NOAA, National Estuarine Inventory. Rockville, MD

Liston, J. 1989. Current issues in food safety - especially seafoods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 89(7):911-913.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Division of Microbiology. 1984. Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 6th edition. Association of Official and Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA.

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