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A wild squash; pulp of the green fruit is used with soap to remove stains from clothing. The leaves were used medicinally.

The most plentiful mineral in the body; a major component of bones, teeth, and soft tissues. Calcium is needed for nerve and muscle function, blood clotting, and metabolism.

A beverage made of rum spruce beer and molasses.

The basic unit of measurement for the energy value of food and the energy needs of the body. Because 1 calorie is minuscule, values are usually expressed as units of 1,000 calories, properly written as kilocalories (kcal), or simply calories.

A method of preserving food in air-tight vacuum-containers and heat processing sufficiently to enable storing the food at normal home temperatures.

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Canning Salt:
Also called pickling salt. It is regular table salt without the anti-caking or iodine additives.

A capon is a rooster (a male chicken) whose reproductive functions were removed at a young age. Typically the castration is performed when the chicken is between 6 and 20 weeks old. The benefits are a non-aggressive male that can serve as a mother for baby chicks. They also produce ample, tender meat when butchered and as such are a choice poultry meat in some locales.
Due to the high fat content, they are self-basting.
The caponisation of poultry is banned in the United Kingdom on animal welfare grounds, though the meat itself is not illegal.

Caramelized Sugar:
Granulated sugar that has been cooked until it reaches a caramel color. The transformed flavor compliments dessert as a beautiful and tasty topping. The most common method of preparation is to sprinkle the granulated sugar or drizzle a sugar-based sauce over the top of a dessert and quickly pass a small torch or flame over the top to cook the sugar mixture.

Yellow and red pigments that color yellow-orange fruits and vegetables. They are amoung the antioxidants that protect against the effects of aging and disease. The human body converts one such pigment; beta carotene into vitamin A.

1. Cooking pot, complete with lid, made of oven proof or flameproof earthenware, glass or metal. 2. Slow-cooked stew of meat, fish or vegetables.

Also called Manioc and Yuca, the cassava is a root that ranges from 6-12 inches in length and from 2-3 inches in diameter. It has a tough brown skin which, when peeled, reveals a crisp, white flesh. There are many varieties of cassava but only two main categories, sweet and bitter. The bitter cassava is poisonous unless cooked. It should be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 4 days. Grated sun-dried cassava is called cassava meal. Cassava is also used to make Cassareep and Tapioca.

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These are the eggs of sturgeon that have been salted and cured. Grading for caviar is determined by the size and color of the roe and the species of the sturgeon. Beluga caviar, which is the most expensive of the three types of caviar, are dark gray in color and are the largest eggs. Ossetra caviar are light to medium brown and are smaller grains than beluga. Sevruga caviar are the smallest grains, the firmest in texture and are also gray in color. Pressed caviar is made of softer, lower quality eggs and have a stronger, fishier flavor. The term malossol is used to describe the amount of salt used in the initial curing process. The roe from other fish such as salmon, lumpfish, and whitefish are not considered caviars, regardless of their label. They should be addressed as roe. Caviar should be served as simply as possible. Traditional accompaniments, inspired by the Russians, are sour cream, blinis, and ice cold vodka. Lemon and minced onion are often served with caviar, but their flavors will only detract from the pure delicate flavor of the caviar.

One of the main ingredients of plant cell walls, this indigestible carbohydrate is an important source of insoluble fiber.

Chana Daal:
Are split and hulled chickpeas.
This is a name for sweetened whipped cream flavored with vanilla. The term may also be used to describe sauces that have had whipped cream folded into them. This includes both sweet and savory sauces.

Chickpea Flour (Besan):
Is flour made out of chickpeas. It is also known as Gram flour.
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Chickpeas (Chana):
Come in two varieties, light (Garbanzo or Kabuli chana) and dark brown (kala chana).
Process of cooling prepared or partially prepared food, without freezing it, in a refrigerator.

Meat carving process whereby the backbone is separated from the ribs in a join to make carving easier.

Citric Acid:
A form of acid that can be added to canned foods. It increases the acidity of low-acid foods and may improve the flavor.

A nonmetallic element that is a necessary component of body cells and fluids, such as hydrochloric acid; it is found in gastric juice and is important to digestion

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To cut food into small pieces with a sharp knife.

Chopper and Bowl:
A heavy crescent-shaped blade of iron or steel with top mounted handle, and a wooden bowl exactly curved to the shape of the blade to receive the blows of the chopper; used to chop food. Succeeded in our time by the straight chef´s knife and the electric food processor.

A spicy pork sausage from all Hispanic countries, ranging in seasoning from mild and sweet to fiercely hot. Hotter versions come from areas of Spain and Portugal. Mexican versions contain a large variety of chiles and have a mealier texture and more complex flavor. Some of them even use fresh herbs giving it a green color. Portugal makes a cousin to this sausage called the linguisa, that is smoked and much hotter.

A trace mineral that ensures proper glucose metabolism.

The name for a large range of sauces or relishes used in East Indian cooking. Fresh chutneys have a bright, clean flavor and are usually thin, smooth sauces. Cilantro, mint, and tamarind are common in fresh chutney. Cooked chutneys have a deeper, broader flavor.

Clarified Butter:
Originally from France butter cleared of water and impurities by slow melting and filtering through a sieve.

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French also : 1. Method of preparation that clears fats by heating and filtering. 2. Clearing consommes and jellies with beaten egg white.

Clostridium Botulinum:
Vegetables, some tomatoes, figs, all meats, fish, seafoods and some dairy foods are low acid. To control all risks of botulism; jars of these foods must be (l) heat processed in a pressure canner, or (2) acidified to a pH of 4.6 or lower before processing in boiling water.

To cover food with a protective coating, such as batter, breadcrumbs or flour, before frying or covering food with a sauce.

Cocoa Powder:
Regular (or American) and Dutch process are the two dominant types of processed cocoa beans . The Dutch processed cocoa has a slightly stronger flavor and richer color than regular cocoa because it is treated with a mild alkali, such as baking soda, to neutralizes its acidity. Both regular and Dutch process cocoa have far less fat and fewer calories than baking and eating chocolate because the cocoa butter has been removed.

Coconut Milk:
Coconut comes from squeezing freshly grated coconut through a cotton cloth. Coconut milk is usually sold in 16 oz cans. Do not buy the sweetened coconut milk used for making tropical drinks if your going to cook with it.

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Cooking process whereby food is slowly simmered in water.

Compounds that work with enzymes to promote biological processes. A coenzyme may be a vitamin, contain one, or be manufactured in the body from a vitamin.

Nonprotein substances that must be present before certain enzymes can function.

If you can pick it up, it's cohesive. Shortbread dough is not very cohesive. Bread dough is.

Cold Pack:
Canning procedure in which jars are filled with raw food. "Raw pack" is the preferred term for describing this practice. "Cold pack" is often used incorrectly to refer
to foods that are open-kettle canned or jars that are heat-processed in boiling water.

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The fibrous protein that helps hold cells and tissues together.

Colonche (Calinche):
A beverage made from tuna - a fruit of the prickly pear cactus.

Complementary Protein:
Protein containing plant foods that lack one or more of the essential amino acids but can be paired with another plant food to supply a complete protein.

Complete Protein:
A protein that contains all the essential amino acids. It's found in single animal foods; it can be constructed by combining two or more complementary plant foods.

Complex Carbohydrates:
Starches and fiber that have a more complicated chemical structure than simple carbohydrates (sugars).

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Condensed Milk:
Preserved milk in which much of the water content is evaporated and sugar is added. First became popular is wartime England because of how well it preserved. Today it is primarily utilized in sweets and confectionery making. Condensed Milk is also used in iced drinks because its high sugar content won't readily freeze in the beverage.

Confectioners Sugar:
Also know as Powdered Sugar. Commonly utilized in pasty baking and in frostings.

Whole fruit preserved by boiling with sugar and used like jam.

Some families cooked and baked in one iron skillet, called a cook-all.

A trace mineral necessary for the production of red blood cells, connective tissue, and nerve fibers. It is a component of several enzymes.

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To remove the hard, indigestible center of some foods, such as peppers, kidneys, apples, pears, pineapples.

Also known as polenta. A yellow, grainy powder made from degermed ground corn. It is similar to semolina in texture. Tortillas and cornbread are two of the most common cornmeal based foods. Cornmeal is versatile ingredient that can be used in both sweet and savory dishes. White cornmeal is also available and does not impact the color of the prepared food in the same manner as yellow cornmeal.

White, powdery thickener that is ground finer than flour. It is extracted from the starch endosperm of wheat or corn. It must be dissolved in a cold liquid before it is added to a hot mixture or it will lump. It results in a glazy, opaque finish in most soups, stews and gravy. Also used for thickening sauces and puddings.

Corn Syrup:
Clear syrup produced in light and dark verities as obtained from maize or corn. Common ingredient utilized in the preparation of baked items and confectionery.

A plant, the bulbs of which were eaten by the Pima and Papago Indians; spmetimes eaten raw in early spring.

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To soften a fat, especially butter, by beating it at room temperature. Butter and sugar are often creamed together, making a smooth, soft paste..

Crème Fraïche:
This matured, thickened cream has a slighly tangy, nutty flavor and velvety rich texture. The thickness of crème fraïche can range from that of commercial sour cream to almost as solid as room-temperature margarine. In France, where crème fraïche is a specialty, the cream is unpasturized and therefore contains the bacteria necessary to thicken it naturally. In America, where all commercial cream is pasturized, the fermenting agents necessary for crème fraïche can be obtained by adding buttermilk or sour cream. A very expensive facsimile of crème fraïche is sold in some gourmet market. the expense seems frivolous, however, when it's so easy to make an equally delicious version at home. To do so, combine 1 cup whipping cream and 2 tablespoons buttermilk in a glass container. Cover and let stand at room temperature (about 70°F) from 8 to 24 hours, or until very thick. Stir well before covering and refrigerate up to 10 days. Crème fraïche is the ideal addition for sauces or soups because it can be boiled without curdling. It's delicious spooned over fresh fruit or other desserts such as warm cobblers or puddings.

Cream of Wheat (Sooji):
Also known as Semolina and is used for making both savory and sweet dishes.
To seal the edges of a two-crust pie either by pinching them at intervals with the fingers or by pressing them together with the tines of a fork.

An assortment of raw vegetables, (i.e. carrots, broccoli, mushrooms) served as an hors d'oeuvre, often accompanied by a dip.

A small glass bottle for holding vinegar or oil at the table. Sometimes called a caster.

Process of preserving fish or meat by drying, salting or smoking.

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