A wild squash; pulp of the green fruit is used with soap to remove stains from clothing. The leaves were used medicinally.
The most plentiful mineral in the body; a major component of bones, teeth, and soft tissues. Calcium is needed for nerve and muscle function,
blood clotting, and metabolism.
A beverage made of rum spruce beer and molasses.
The basic unit of measurement for the energy value of food and the energy needs of the body. Because 1 calorie is minuscule, values are usually expressed
as units of 1,000 calories, properly written as kilocalories (kcal), or simply calories.
A method of preserving food in air-tight vacuum-containers and heat processing sufficiently to enable storing the
food at normal home temperatures.
Also called pickling salt. It is regular table salt without the anti-caking or iodine additives.
A capon is a rooster (a male chicken) whose reproductive functions were removed at a young age. Typically the castration is performed when the chicken is between 6 and 20 weeks old.
The benefits are a non-aggressive male that can serve as a mother for baby chicks. They also produce ample, tender meat when butchered and as such are a choice poultry meat in some locales.
Due to the high fat content, they are self-basting.
The caponisation of poultry is banned in the United Kingdom on animal welfare grounds, though the meat itself is not illegal.
Granulated sugar that has been cooked until it reaches a caramel color. The transformed flavor compliments dessert
as a beautiful and tasty topping. The most common method of preparation is to sprinkle the granulated sugar or drizzle
a sugar-based sauce over the top of a dessert and quickly pass a small torch or flame over the top to cook the sugar mixture.
Yellow and red pigments that color yellow-orange fruits and vegetables. They are amoung the antioxidants that protect against the effects of aging and disease.
The human body converts one such pigment; beta carotene into vitamin A.
Also called Manioc and Yuca, the cassava is a root that ranges from 6-12 inches in length and from 2-3 inches in diameter. It has a tough brown skin
which, when peeled, reveals a crisp, white flesh. There are many varieties of cassava but only two main categories, sweet and bitter. The bitter cassava is
poisonous unless cooked. It should be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 4 days. Grated sun-dried cassava is called cassava meal. Cassava is also
used to make Cassareep and Tapioca.
These are the eggs of sturgeon that have been salted and cured.
Grading for caviar is determined by the size and color of the roe and the
species of the sturgeon. Beluga caviar, which is the most expensive of the three
types of caviar, are dark gray in color and are the largest eggs. Ossetra caviar
are light to medium brown and are smaller grains than beluga. Sevruga caviar are
the smallest grains, the firmest in texture and are also gray in color. Pressed
caviar is made of softer, lower quality eggs and have a stronger, fishier
flavor. The term malossol is used to describe the amount of salt used in the
initial curing process. The roe from other fish such as salmon, lumpfish, and
whitefish are not considered caviars, regardless of their label. They should be
addressed as roe. Caviar should be served as simply as possible. Traditional
accompaniments, inspired by the Russians, are sour cream, blinis, and ice cold
vodka. Lemon and minced onion are often served with caviar, but their flavors
will only detract from the pure delicate flavor of the caviar.
Process of cooling prepared or partially prepared food, without freezing it, in a refrigerator.
Meat carving process whereby the backbone is separated from the ribs in a join to make carving easier.
A form of acid that can be added to canned foods. It increases the acidity of low-acid foods and may improve the flavor.
A nonmetallic element that is a necessary component of body cells and fluids, such as hydrochloric acid; it is found in
gastric juice and is important to digestion
To cut food into small pieces with a sharp knife.
Chopper and Bowl:
A heavy crescent-shaped blade of iron or steel with top mounted handle, and a wooden bowl exactly curved to the shape of the blade to receive the blows of the chopper; used to chop food. Succeeded in our time by the straight chef´s knife and the electric food processor.
A spicy pork sausage from all Hispanic countries, ranging in
seasoning from mild and sweet to fiercely hot. Hotter versions come from areas
of Spain and Portugal. Mexican versions contain a large variety of chiles and
have a mealier texture and more complex flavor. Some of them even use fresh
herbs giving it a green color. Portugal makes a cousin to this sausage called
the linguisa, that is smoked and much hotter.
A trace mineral that ensures proper glucose metabolism.
The name for a large range of sauces or relishes used in East
Indian cooking. Fresh chutneys have a bright, clean flavor and are usually thin,
smooth sauces. Cilantro, mint, and tamarind are common in fresh chutney. Cooked
chutneys have a deeper, broader flavor.
Originally from France butter cleared of water and impurities by slow melting and filtering through a sieve.
French also : 1. Method of preparation that clears fats by heating and filtering. 2. Clearing consommes and jellies with
beaten egg white.
Vegetables, some tomatoes, figs, all meats, fish, seafoods and some dairy foods are low acid. To
control all risks of botulism; jars of these foods must be (l) heat processed in a pressure canner, or (2) acidified to a pH of 4.6 or lower
before processing in boiling water.
To cover food with a protective coating, such as batter, breadcrumbs
or flour, before frying or covering food with a sauce.
Regular (or American) and Dutch process are the two dominant types of processed cocoa beans . The Dutch processed cocoa has a
slightly stronger flavor and richer color than regular cocoa because it is treated with a mild alkali, such as baking soda, to
neutralizes its acidity. Both regular and Dutch process cocoa have far less fat and fewer calories than baking and eating chocolate
because the cocoa butter has been removed.
Coconut comes from squeezing freshly grated coconut through a cotton cloth. Coconut milk is usually sold in 16 oz cans. Do not buy the sweetened coconut milk used for making tropical drinks if your
going to cook with it.
Cooking process whereby food is slowly simmered in water.
Compounds that work with enzymes to promote biological processes. A coenzyme may be a vitamin, contain one, or be manufactured
in the body from a vitamin.
Nonprotein substances that must be present before certain enzymes can function.
If you can pick it up, it's cohesive. Shortbread dough is not
very cohesive. Bread dough is.
Canning procedure in which jars are filled with raw food. "Raw pack" is the preferred term for describing this practice.
"Cold pack" is often used incorrectly to refer to foods that are open-kettle
canned or jars that are heat-processed in boiling water.
The fibrous protein that helps hold cells and tissues together.
A beverage made from tuna - a fruit of the prickly pear cactus.
Protein containing plant foods that lack one or more of the essential amino acids but can be paired with another
plant food to supply a complete protein.
A protein that contains all the essential amino acids. It's found in single animal foods; it can be constructed by
combining two or more complementary plant foods.
Starches and fiber that have a more complicated chemical structure than simple carbohydrates (sugars).
Preserved milk in which much of the water content is evaporated and sugar is added. First became popular is wartime England because of
how well it preserved. Today it is primarily utilized in sweets and confectionery making. Condensed Milk is also used in iced drinks because
its high sugar content won't readily freeze in the beverage.
Also know as Powdered Sugar. Commonly utilized in pasty baking and in frostings.
Whole fruit preserved by boiling with sugar and used like jam.
Some families cooked and baked in one iron skillet, called a cook-all.
A trace mineral necessary for the production of red blood cells, connective tissue, and nerve fibers. It is a component
of several enzymes.
To remove the hard, indigestible center of some foods, such as peppers,
kidneys, apples, pears, pineapples.
Also known as polenta. A yellow, grainy powder made from degermed ground corn. It is similar to semolina in texture.
Tortillas and cornbread are two of the most common cornmeal based foods. Cornmeal is versatile ingredient that can be used
in both sweet and savory dishes. White cornmeal is also available and does not impact the color of the prepared food in the
same manner as yellow cornmeal.
White, powdery thickener that is ground finer than flour. It is extracted from the starch endosperm of wheat or corn.
It must be dissolved in a cold liquid before it is added to a hot mixture or it will lump. It results in a glazy, opaque
finish in most soups, stews and gravy. Also used for thickening sauces and puddings.
Clear syrup produced in light and dark verities as obtained from maize or corn. Common ingredient utilized in the
preparation of baked items and confectionery.
A plant, the bulbs of which were eaten by the Pima and Papago Indians; spmetimes eaten raw in early spring.
To soften a fat, especially butter, by beating it at room temperature.
Butter and sugar are often creamed together, making a smooth, soft paste..
This matured, thickened cream has a slighly tangy, nutty flavor and velvety rich texture.
The thickness of crème fraïche can range from that of commercial sour cream to almost as solid as room-temperature
margarine. In France, where crème fraïche is a specialty, the cream is unpasturized and therefore contains the bacteria
necessary to thicken it naturally. In America, where all commercial cream is pasturized, the fermenting agents necessary for
crème fraïche can be obtained by adding buttermilk or sour cream. A very expensive facsimile of crème fraïche
is sold in some gourmet market. the expense seems frivolous, however, when it's so easy to make an equally delicious version at home.
To do so, combine 1 cup whipping cream and 2 tablespoons buttermilk in a glass container. Cover and let stand at room temperature (about 70°F)
from 8 to 24 hours, or until very thick. Stir well before covering and refrigerate up to 10 days. Crème fraïche is the ideal
addition for sauces or soups because it can be boiled without curdling. It's delicious spooned over fresh fruit or other desserts
such as warm cobblers or puddings.