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A piece of meat or fish that has been pounded very thinnly and grilled or sautéed.

A thick paste used as a binding agent for forcemeats. Flour panadas are made in a style similar to choux paste. Other types use bread crumbs or potato puree.

To boil until partially cooked; tp blanch. Usually this procedure is followed by final cooking in a seasoned sauce.

Parchment Paper:
A silicon based paper that can withstand high heat. Often used to prepare sugar and chocolate confections because they do not stick to the paper at all. Parchment paper may be reused several times.

To remove the outermost skin of a fruit or vegetable.

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In Jewish dietary law, a food that contains neither meat nor dairy.

A kind of stew made from fresh pork and hominy.

The bread prepared from the camass root.

Heating of a specific food enough to destroy the most heat-resistant pathogenic or disease-causing microorganism known to be associated with that food.

Method of sterilizing milk by beating it to 60 to 82-C or 140 to 180-F degrees to destroy harmful bacteria. The term is derived from Louis Pasteur, who developed the method.

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A French term referring to pastes or pastry.

Pâté Choux:
A paste used to make cream puffs, eclairs, and other more elaborate pastries. It is made by adding flour to boiling water or milk, which has been enriched with butter. Eggs are then added into the paste to leaven it. Savory pastries such as gougere may also be made with this paste.

A term referring to many different preparations of meat, fish and vegetable pies. The definitions of which have been altered through the years. Originally pate referred to a filled pastry much like American or English pies. Now the term pâté en croute is used to describe these preparations. Pâté en terrine has been shortened to either pâté or terrine. A terrine is generally a finer forcemeat than that used for pâté, and is always served cold. Pâtés are coarser forcemeats and, as stated before, are often prepared in a pastry crust. We now use these terms interchangeably and inclusive of all styles of forcemeat. Look for definitions under ballottine and galantine.

1. Small, flat, round or oval shaped cake of food, such as potato cake or fish cake, which is served hot. 2. Small, flat, individual pie, such as a chicken patty, which is served hot or cold. 3. Small, round form for meats such as hamburger.

Pearl Barley:
De-husked barley grains, primarily used in soups.

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Any of a group of white, amorphous, complex carbohydrates that occur in ripe fruits and certain vegetables. Fruits rich in pectin are the peach, apple, currant, and plum. Protopectin, present in unripe fruits, is converted to pectin as the fruit ripens. Pectin forms a colloidal solution in water and gels on cooling. When fruits are cooked with the correct amount of sugar, and when the acidity is optimum and the amount of pectin present is sufficient, jams and jellies can be made. In overripe fruits, the pectin becomes pectic acid, which does not form jelly with sugar solutions. Commercial preparations of pectin are available for jelly making. An indigestible, soluble fiber, pectin is a general intestinal regulator that is used in many medicinal preparations, especially as an antidiarrhea agent.

To remove the outer rind or shell from a food.

Pepperoncini or Pepperoncino:
Also known as Tuscan peppers, sweet Italian peppers, and golden Greek peppers. The Italian varieties, grown in the Tuscany region of Italy, tend to be more bitter than their Greek counterparts. The more popular Greek varieties are sweeter and commonly found in pizzerias tossed in salads for a crunchy, salty taste. They have a bushy plant that grows to 30 inches tall and producing sweet green peppers that turn red when mature. Usually picked at 2 to 3 inches long, these bright red, wrinkled peppers taper to a blunt, lobed end and are very popular for pickling. These peppers are mild and sweet with a slight heat to them, and are commonly jarred for use in Greek salads and salad bars.

A delicious sauce used for pastas, grilled meats, and poultry. This is made of fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, and parmesan cheese. Some versions will also add parsley and walnuts or pine nuts. The ingredients are ground into a paste and moistened with the olive oil. Pesto is also used to describe similar sauces that contain other herbs or nuts.

A measure of acidity or alkalinity. Values range from 0 to l4. A food is neutral when its pH is 7.0: lower values are increasingly more acid; higher values are increasingly more alkaline.

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Waxy compounds, containing phosphoric acid, that are constituents of cell membranes.

A mineral needed for healthy bones and teeth, nerves, muscles, and for many bodily functions.

Salts of phytic acid, found in grains and legumes, that hinder the absorption of minerals.

Chemicals derived from plants; some having powerful effects, including both the prevention and the promotion of certain cancers, heart disease, and degenerative conditions linked to aging.

Plant chemicals with effects similar to those of the female hormone estrogen; found in yams, soybeans, and other legumes.

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Process whereby meat or vegetables are preserved in brine or vinegar solutions with or without seasonings and herbs.

The practice of adding enough vinegar or lemon juice to a low-acid food to lower its pH to 4.6 or lower. Properly pickled foods may be safely heat processed in boiling water.

The garden rhubarb, the tender leafstalks of which are used in making pies.

Hopi Indian bread made from corn. A paper-thin bread, baked on a smoothly polished stone moderately heated by the fire beneath it.

A food prepared from seeds of various plants roasted and ground and mixed with other ingredients. For example, the mesquite pod encloses a glutinous substance, which is ground into flour to make pinole. It may be made by parching corn, then grinding it and mixing with cinnamon and sugar.

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To force meringue icing, savoury butter, potato puree or other mixtures through a forcing bag fitted with a nozzle, to decorate or garnish various dishes.

Pistachio Nuts:
Also known as Pista. Are used for making and garnishing sweets and desserts.

To pierce or severe the "pith" or spinal cord of (an animal) so as to kill it or render it in-sensible.

The clear yellow fluid that makes up about 55 percent of the blood and carries cells, platelets, and vital nutrients throughout the body.

Disc-shaped cells, manufactured in the bone marrow, that are needed for blood coagulation.

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A dough that is pliable can be rolled out or shaped without the gluten being so worked that the dough just stretches back into its previous shape. At the same time, the dough doesn't fall apart when it is picked up (mathematically, cohesive is a necessary condition for pliable). Biscuit dough isn't very pliable (it falls apart easily), neither is just-kneaded bread dough (it springs back from any pushing or rolling), but pie crust and cookie dough usually is, as is bread dough during the beginning of kneading.

1. Offal. 2. To remove the feathers from a domesticated or game bird.

To cook very gently in hot liquid kept just below the boiling point.

The Italian version of cornmeal mush. Coarsely ground yellow cornmeal is cooked with stock or water and flavored with onions, garlic, and cheese. Polenta may be eaten fresh out of the pot, as a perfect accompaniment to stews. Polenta may also be poured into a greased pan and allowed to set. It is then sliced, sauteed, and topped with cheese or tomato sauce. When cooked properly, polenta is a simple treasure.

Polyols (Sugar Alcohols), are commonly added to foods because of their lower caloric content than sugars; however they are also generally less sweet, and are often combined with high intensity sweeteners . They are also added to chewing gum because they are not metabolized (ie broken down) by bacteria in the mouth, so they do not contribute to tooth decay. Maltitol, sorbitol and Isomalt are some of the more common types. Sugar alcohols may be formed under mild reducing conditions from their analogue sugars.

Organic compounds, including tannins, that combine with iron and can hinder its absorption; found in a number of foods, tea, and red wines.

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Polyunsaturated Fat:
A fat containing a high percentage of fatty acids that lack hydrogen atoms and have extra carbon bonds. It is liquid at room temperature.

1. A small (about 1 ounce) bar measure, which is sometimes also used to serve Liqeurs.
2. The term also refers to the amount of liqued such as a glass holds (usually 1 ounce), as in a pony of whiskey.

Another French term meaning thick soup.

A trace mineral that is needed to regulate fluid balance and many other functions.

In French cookery this is a powder or paste made of caramelized almonds and/or hazelnuts. American cookery refers to a candy consisting of caramel and pecans.

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Prague Powder:
Prague Powder #1 (Curing Salt)is a proportionate measure of salt and nitrite regulated by the FDA and USDA and is necessary to help prevent food poisoning. Use 4 oz. of curing salt per 100 lbs. of sausage meat or jerky meat.

Prague Powder #2 is a cure for dry meats, containing sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite.

Prairie Turnip:
The prarie potato, or the edible root of this, has something of the taste of the turnip. It was often dried and pounded and made into gruel.

To prepare foods so that they can be kept for long periods of time without spoiling or deteriorating. Depending on the food and the length of tome it's to be stored, preserving can be accomplished in a number of different ways including refrigeration, freezing, canning, salting, smoking, freeze-drying, dehydrating and pickling.

Pressure Canner:
A specifically designed metal kettle with a lockable lid used for heat processing low-acid food. These canners have jar racks, one or more safety devices, systems for exhausting air, and a way to measure or control pressure. Canners with 20-21 quart capacity are common. The typical volume of canner that can be used is 16 quart capacity, which will contain 7 quart jars. Use of pressure saucepans with less than 16 quart capacities Is Not Recommended.

This Italian phrase means "spring style" and culinarily refers to the use of fresh vegetables (raw or blanched) as a garnish to various dishes. One of the most popular dishes prepared in this manner is pasta primavera, pasta tossed or topped with diced or julienned cooked vegetables.

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Proof (noun):
A term used to indicate the amount of alcohol in liquor or other spirits. In the United States, proof is exactly twice the percentage of alcohol. Therefore, a bottle of liquor labeled "86 Proof" contains 43 percent alcohol.

Proof (verb):
To dissolve yeast in a warm liquid (sometimes with a small amount of sugar) and set it aside in a warm place for 5 to 10 minutes until it swells and becomes bubbly. This technique proves that the yeast is alive and active and therefore capable of leavening a bread or other baked good.

The Italian word for ham, usually referring to the raw cured hams of Parma. Though once impossible to obtain in the United States due to USDA regulations, fine prosciuttos from Italy and Switzerland are now being imported. These hams are called prosciutto crudo. Cooked hams are called prosciutto cotto. Prosciutto is best when sliced paper thin served with ripe figs or wrapped around grissini.

Hormonlike chemicals involved in many body processes, including hypersensitivity (allergy) reactions, platelet aggregation (blood clotting), inflammation, pain sensitivity, and smooth muscle contraction.

A fruit or other food that makes the mouth pucker.

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1. Baked, boiled or instant sweet dessert. 2. Boiled suet crust which is filled with meat or poultry.

A fermented drink made from various species of Agave.

1. Soft, fleshy tissue of fruits or vegetables. 2. To reduce food to a soft mass by crushing or boiling.

Pumpkin Bread:
Bread made by stewing pumpkins until done; this is then put into a pan of meal, salted, and shaped into small thin cakes.

Punch Down:
A term used in working with yeast-risen products. After letting the dough rise, one flattens it forcefully in the bowl before turning it out onto a floured board.

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To mash foods until perfectly smooth by hand, by rubbing thru a sieve or food mill, or by whirling in a blender or food processor..

Compounds that form uric acid when metabolized; they are found in a number of foods, particularly high-protein foods, such as organ meats. Caffeine (in coffee and tea), theobromine (inchocolate), and theophylline (in tea) are related compounds. People prone to gout or kidney stones should avoid purines.

1. Sieved raw or cooked food. 2. Thick vegetable soup which is passed through a sieve or an electric blender or food processor.

A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile flakes. The hot pasta is tossed in this sauce prior to serving. Some recipes leave the ingredients raw, allowing the heat of the pasta to bring out the flavors.

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