A paste used to make cream puffs, eclairs, and other more
elaborate pastries. It is made by adding flour to boiling water or milk, which
has been enriched with butter. Eggs are then added into the paste to leaven it.
Savory pastries such as gougere may also be made with this paste.
A term referring to many different preparations of meat, fish and
vegetable pies. The definitions of which have been altered through the years.
Originally pate referred to a filled pastry much like American or English pies.
Now the term pâté en croute is used to describe these preparations. Pâté en
terrine has been shortened to either pâté or terrine. A terrine is generally a
finer forcemeat than that used for pâté, and is always served cold. Pâtés are
coarser forcemeats and, as stated before, are often prepared in a pastry crust.
We now use these terms interchangeably and inclusive of all styles of forcemeat.
Look for definitions under ballottine and galantine.
1. Small, flat, round or oval shaped cake of food, such as potato cake or fish cake,
which is served hot. 2. Small, flat, individual pie, such as a chicken patty, which is
served hot or cold. 3. Small, round form for meats such as hamburger.
Any of a group of white, amorphous, complex carbohydrates that occur in ripe fruits and certain vegetables. Fruits rich in pectin are the peach,
apple, currant, and plum. Protopectin, present in unripe fruits, is converted to pectin as the fruit ripens. Pectin forms a colloidal solution in water
and gels on cooling. When fruits are cooked with the correct amount of sugar, and when the acidity is optimum and the amount of pectin present is
sufficient, jams and jellies can be made. In overripe fruits, the pectin becomes pectic acid, which does not form jelly with sugar solutions. Commercial
preparations of pectin are available for jelly making. An indigestible, soluble fiber, pectin is a general intestinal regulator that is used in many
medicinal preparations, especially as an antidiarrhea agent.
Also known as Tuscan peppers, sweet Italian peppers, and golden Greek peppers. The Italian varieties, grown in the Tuscany region of Italy, tend to be more bitter than their Greek counterparts. The more popular Greek varieties are sweeter and commonly found in pizzerias tossed in salads for a crunchy,
salty taste. They have a bushy plant that grows to 30 inches tall and producing sweet green peppers that turn red when mature. Usually picked at 2 to 3 inches long, these bright red, wrinkled peppers taper to a blunt, lobed end and are very popular for pickling. These peppers are mild and sweet with a slight
heat to them, and are commonly jarred for use in Greek salads and salad bars.
A delicious sauce used for pastas, grilled meats, and poultry. This
is made of fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, and parmesan cheese. Some versions
will also add parsley and walnuts or pine nuts. The ingredients are ground into
a paste and moistened with the olive oil. Pesto is also used to describe similar
sauces that contain other herbs or nuts.
A food prepared from seeds of various plants roasted and ground and mixed with other ingredients. For example, the mesquite pod encloses a glutinous substance, which is ground into flour to make pinole. It may
be made by parching corn, then grinding it and mixing with cinnamon and sugar.
A dough that is pliable can be rolled out or shaped without the
gluten being so worked that the dough just stretches back into its
previous shape. At the same time, the dough doesn't fall apart when it is
picked up (mathematically, cohesive is a necessary condition for
pliable). Biscuit dough isn't very pliable (it falls apart easily),
neither is just-kneaded bread dough (it springs back from any pushing or
rolling), but pie crust and cookie dough usually is, as is bread dough
during the beginning of kneading.
The Italian version of cornmeal mush. Coarsely ground yellow
cornmeal is cooked with stock or water and flavored with onions, garlic, and
cheese. Polenta may be eaten fresh out of the pot, as a perfect accompaniment to
stews. Polenta may also be poured into a greased pan and allowed to set. It is
then sliced, sauteed, and topped with cheese or tomato sauce. When cooked
properly, polenta is a simple treasure.
Polyols (Sugar Alcohols), are commonly added to foods because of their lower caloric content than sugars; however they are also generally less sweet, and are often combined with high intensity sweeteners . They are also added to chewing gum because they are not metabolized (ie broken down) by bacteria in the mouth, so they do not contribute to tooth decay. Maltitol, sorbitol and Isomalt are some of the more common types. Sugar alcohols may be formed under mild reducing conditions from their analogue sugars.
Prague Powder #1 (Curing Salt)is a proportionate measure of salt and nitrite regulated by the FDA and USDA and is necessary to help prevent food poisoning. Use 4 oz. of curing salt per 100 lbs. of sausage meat or jerky meat.
Prague Powder #2 is a cure for dry meats, containing sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite.
To prepare foods so that they can be kept for long periods of time without spoiling
or deteriorating. Depending on the food and the length of tome it's to be stored, preserving
can be accomplished in a number of different ways including refrigeration, freezing, canning,
salting, smoking, freeze-drying, dehydrating and pickling.
A specifically designed metal kettle with a lockable lid used for heat processing low-acid food. These
canners have jar racks, one or more safety devices, systems for exhausting air, and a way to measure or control pressure.
Canners with 20-21 quart capacity are common. The typical volume of canner that can be used is 16
quart capacity, which will contain 7 quart jars. Use of pressure saucepans with less than 16 quart capacities Is Not Recommended.
This Italian phrase means "spring style" and culinarily refers to the use of
fresh vegetables (raw or blanched) as a garnish to various dishes. One of the most
popular dishes prepared in this manner is pasta primavera, pasta tossed or topped
with diced or julienned cooked vegetables.
A term used to indicate the amount of alcohol in liquor or other spirits. In the
United States, proof is exactly twice the percentage of alcohol. Therefore, a bottle
of liquor labeled "86 Proof" contains 43 percent alcohol.
To dissolve yeast in a warm liquid (sometimes with a small amount of sugar) and set it aside in
a warm place for 5 to 10 minutes until it swells and becomes bubbly. This technique proves that the
yeast is alive and active and therefore capable of leavening a bread or other baked good.
The Italian word for ham, usually referring to the raw cured
hams of Parma. Though once impossible to obtain in the United States due to USDA
regulations, fine prosciuttos from Italy and Switzerland are now being imported.
These hams are called prosciutto crudo. Cooked hams are called prosciutto cotto.
Prosciutto is best when sliced paper thin served with ripe figs or wrapped
Hormonlike chemicals involved in many body processes, including hypersensitivity (allergy)
reactions, platelet aggregation (blood clotting), inflammation, pain sensitivity, and smooth muscle contraction.
Compounds that form uric acid when metabolized; they are found in a number of foods, particularly high-protein foods,
such as organ meats. Caffeine (in coffee and tea), theobromine (inchocolate), and theophylline (in tea) are related compounds.
People prone to gout or kidney stones should avoid purines.
A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives,
capers, anchovies, and chile flakes. The hot pasta is tossed in this sauce prior
to serving. Some recipes leave the ingredients raw, allowing the heat of the
pasta to bring out the flavors.