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The French word for a velvety Italian custard called zabaglione. See Zabaglione.

Mexican Sabayon: Mexican sabayon differs from the classic Italian version in that it is not cooked. The egg whites are whipped until stiff and then carefully folded into the yolk mixture.

A term for sugars.

Sachertorte, Sacher Cake:
Sacher Torte is a famous Viennese cake, probably the most famous chocolate cake of all-time. It consists of chocolate sponge cake cut into three layers, between which apricot jam are thickly spread between the layers and on the top and sides of the cake. The whole cake is then iced with a velvet-like chocolate and served with a side dish of whipped cream.

The following history is courtesy of Linda Stradley and her web site What's Cooking America at .

The History: Was created by Chef Franz Sacher at the beginning in 1832 for Prince Clemens Lothar Wensel Metternich (1773-1859) of Austria. The prince enjoyed trying new dishes and ordered the chef to create a new cake. Orders were sent to the kitchens where it was instant pandemonium. The head chef was sick and the team of cooks in the kitchen had no idea what to prepare. Franz Sacher, a 16-year old apprentice cook, rolled up his sleeves and created this famous chocolate cake with the ingredients that were available.

The Sacher Torte and other recipes made him prosperous, and he operated several cafes and restaurants. In 1876, his son, Eduard Sacher, opened a grand hotel, but it was Eduard's dynamic, cigar-smoking wife, Anna, who turned it into one of Europe's greatest hostelries, and by the time of her death in 1930 it was a national institution.

For some unknown reason, Franz Sacher later sold his original recipe to Demel's, a fancy café on the Kohlmarkt, while the Hotel Sacher, on Philharmonikerstraße, made its own variant, calling it the "Original Sachertorte," while Demel's has to call its "Demel Sachertorte." Meantime, every Kaffeehaus in the city has its own Sachertorte, no two quite alike, but all excellent.

Sachet d' Epices:
The term means "bag of spices" and consists of whole peppercorns, parsley stems, bay leaves, whole thyme leaves, and fresh garlic (wrapped in a bag of cheesecloth and suspended in the pot with butcher's twine). The amounts vary according to the amount of stock.

Compounds related to salicylic acid that are used for making aspirin and other painkillers and as a preservative. Naturally occuring salicylates in fruits or vegetables may produce allergic reactions in people who are sensitive to aspirin.

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It is an alcoholic beverage produced from rice in much the same way that beer is brewed from wheat and barley, but is termed a rice wine because its alcohol content is similar to strong wines. It is served either hot or cold.

The following history is courtesy of Linda Stradley and her web site What's Cooking America at .

History: Sake has been known since the dawn of civilization, and probably since rice was introduced to Japan from the Asian continent about 2000 years ago. Sake has had an honored role throughout the evolution of Japanese society. In early times, sake drinking was an integral part of celebrating the harvest and was offered to the gods when praying for peace and prosperity. The name was derived from "sakaeru." which means, "to prosper or flourish," In toasting, sake signifies "the water that will bring you prosperity." Today's sake has changed much from early times. It was centuries before they discovered yeast, which greatly increased its alcohol content. The Second World War also altered the recipe. Rice shortages forced brewers to develop new ways to increase their yields. By government decree, pure alcohol and glucose were added to small quantities of rice mash, increasing the yield by as much as four times. Ninety-five percent of today's sake is made using this technique, though connoisseurs say that the best sake is still made with just rice (koji rice) and water only. As wine is used in French cooking, sake is often used in Japanese cooking. For cooking purposes, inexpensive sake of any brand will do just as well.

Comes from the Latin word "herba salta" or "salted herbs," so called because such greens were usually seasoned with dressings containing lots of salt.

Salad Days:
It refers to a time of youthful inexperience, a term coined by Shakespeare, whole Cleopatra characterizes her long-ago romance with Julius Caesar as one occurring in "my salad days, when I was green in judgment, cold in blood."

A type of oven in which the heat is directed down from the roof, used by professional cooks for glazing, browning or carmelizing some savoury or sweet dishes. It is named after the legendary animal that was resistant to fire and lived in the bowels of the earth. Many chefs favour this method of cooking, which according to André Guillot, 'keeps all flavours intact, in the best conditions of speed and hygiene'. A grill (broiler) can be used instead of a salamander.
A salamander is also an iron, a metal instrument, which is heated over a flame or in a fire until red hot and then held over dishes, especially crème brülée, to brown or caramelize the surface.
Small hand-held blow torches are a popular alternative for browning or caramelizing foods.

So called because it is a source of fixed air (carbon dioxide). A["e]rated salt; a white crystalline substance having an alkaline taste and reaction, consisting of sodium bicarbonate. It is largely used in cooking, with sour milk (lactic acid) or cream of tartar as a substitute for yeast. It is also an ingredient of most baking powders, and is used in the preparation of effervescing drinks.

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Compounds related to salicylic acid that are used for making aspirin and other painkillers and as a preservative. Naturally occurring salicylates in fruits or vegetables may produce allergic reactions in people who are sensitive to aspirin.

Since this is rather lengthy is requires it's own page, Salmon.

A bacterium that is a frequent cause of food poisoning.

Salsbury Steak:
A beef patty that is broiled or fried with onions and served with gravy.

The following history is courtesy of Linda Stradley and her web site What's Cooking America at .

History: Salisbury steak was named for Dr. James H. Salisbury (1823-1905), a 19th century nutritionist, who thought that everyone would be healthier if they ate lots of beef, more specifically 3 pounds per day washed down with quarts of hot water. During World War II, when patriotic Americans objected to the German term "hamburger" (the hamburger sandwich was also called liberty sandwich, but that term didn't catch on). Salisbury steak stuck because it was already in existence (first recorded in 1897), but the term "hamburger steak" was known in America at least a decade earlier than that. Salisbury steak was originally more of a fancier version of hamburger "used on menus in the sort of restaurants that would not own up to selling hamburgers."

Corn broken into a coarse ricelike form, boiled and eaten usually with milk and sugar.

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A sandwich is two or more slices of bread with a filling, such as meat, cheese, jam or various mixtures, placed between them.

The following history is courtesy of Linda Stradley and her web site What's Cooking America at .

History: The first recorded sandwich was by the famous rabbi, Hillel, who lived during the 1st century B.C. He started the Passover custom of sandwiching a mixture of chopped nuts, apples, spices, and wine between two matzohs to eat with bitter herbs. The filling between the matzohs served as a reminder of the suffering of the Jews before their deliverance from Egypt and represented the mortar used by the Jews in their forced labor of constructing Egyptian buildings.

During the Middle Ages (6thto 16th century), thick blocks of bread called trenchers were used in place of plates. Meats and other foods were piled on top of the bread to be eaten. At the end of the meal, one either ate the trencher or, if hunger had been satisfied, tossed the gravy-soaked bread to another less fortunate human or animal.

It is also said that the cooks at London's Beef Steak Club, a restaurant, invented the first sandwich. John Montague (1718-1792), the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, usually gambled for hours at a time at this restaurant, sometimes refusing to get up even for meals. It is said that ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread. Because Montague also happened to be the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, others began to order "the same as Sandwich!" Today, billions of sandwiches of unbelievable variety are his legacy.

Middle English sardin, from Old French sardine, from Latin sardna, from sarda, a kind of fish, ultimately from Greek Sard Sardinia.

Any of various small or half-grown edible herrings or related fishes of the family Clupeidae, frequently canned in oil, water, or mustard, especially the pilchard of European waters.

It is Japanese for "raw fish in slices." Sashimi consists of the freshest, top-quality fish. In Japan, it might be fillets of tuna, bonito, salmon, halibut or whatever is in season. It is sliced into bite-size portions and dressed into different shapes. Usually served with soy sauce and horseradish.

Saturated Fat:
A lipid with a high hydrogen content; the predominant fat in animal products and other fats that remain solid at room temperature. A high intake of saturated fat is linked to an increased risk of heart disease, certain cancers, and other diseases.

German for "sour roast." Describes a beef roast marinated for five days or more in a sweet-sour marinade and braised. It is best made from the bottom round.

The following history is courtesy of Linda Stradley and her web site What's Cooking America at .

History: Charlemagne who died in 814 A.D invented Sauerbraten. It was invented as a way of using up left over roasted meat. Later in the 13th century, Albert of Cologne used the recipe with fresh meat. The original sauerbraten never contained such things as tomatoes, gingersnaps, sour cream, bacon, or pork as many recipes do today.

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It is a French word that means a relish to make our food more appetizing. Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid foods devised to make other foods look, smell, and taste better, and hence be more easily digested and more beneficial.

There are five foundation sauces or basic sauces, called in French grandes sauces or sayces meres. Two of them have a record of two hundred years behind them; they are the "bechamelle" and the "mayonnaise". They have lasted so long, not only because they are very good, but also because they are so adaptable and provide a fine basis for a considerable number of other sauces. The other three, which also date back to the 18th century, are the "veloute," the "brune," and the "blonde." These five sauces still provide the basis for making of many modern sauces, but no longer of most of them. Modern sauces may be divided into two classes: the "Careme" and "Escoffier" classes. Among the faithful, in the great kitchen of the world, Escoffier is to Careme what the New Testament is to the Old. See "Mother Sauces" for descriptions of the five basic sauces.

To cook and/or brown food in a small quantity of hot oil.

It is a large, ring-shaped, spongy cake made from a rich yeast mixture, soaked in a rum-flavored syrup and filled with fruit and cream.

The following history is courtesy of Linda Stradley and her web site What's Cooking America at .

History: This cake was named after Antoine Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826) the celebrated French gourmet and writer on gastronomy.

Small dishes served as the last course of a meal. They are similar to appetizers.

To heat to just below the boiling point, when tiny bubbles appear at the edge of the saucepan.

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To remove the scales from fish with a knife or a fish scaler.

Less than enough.

1. Cutting gashes or narrow grooves in the surface of food; Example -- in pork rind to produce crackling. 2. Making a pattern of squares or diamonds on pastry crust.

To remove the outermost skin of a fruit or vegetable.

Screwpine Leaves:
Known mainly as Pandanus (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.)
Popular in the cooking of Southeast Asia (particularly Indonesian, Malasian and Thai), screwpine leaves have a floral flavor and are used most often to flavor rice dishes and puddings. Their intense green hue also makes them useful as a natural food coloring. Screwpine leaves are available in Asian markets — sometimes fresh and always dried. They're also called rampe leaf, daun pandan, pandanus and kewra.

Note: In European languages, there is no distinction between the single species yielding pandanus leaves and the group of species yielding pandanus flowers.

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To fry meat or poultry in hot fat to give color and add flavor and to encase a filling in pastry or other casing.

Method of preparation whereby browning meat rapidly with fierce heat to seals in the juices and flavor of the meat.

Seasoned Flour:
Flour favoured with salt and pepper and sometimes with other herbs and spices.

To remove the skin of citrus fruits and divide the flesh into natural portions.

An essential trace mineral with antioxidant properties.

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Semi-Sweet or Bittersweet Chocolate:
Often utilized in cake and cookie recipes. Both terms are often used interchangeably, though bittersweet generally has more chocolate liquor (the paste formed from roasted, ground cocoa beans). Semi-sweet chocolate contains at least 35% chocolate liquor, while some fine bittersweets contain 50% or more. Either chocolate possess a deep, smooth, intense flavor that comes from the blend of cocoa beans used rather than added dairy products. Sugar, vanilla, and cocoa butter must be added to the liquor to enhance the chocolate flavor.

To divide or separate one thing from another, such as the white of an egg from the yolk.

To cut food finely using a sharp knife.

To shake a dry ingredient, such as flour, through a sieve to remove any lumps.

A kind of doughnut.

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To cook in liquid just below the boiling point. The surface of the liquid should be barely moving, broken from time to time by slowly rising bubbles.

Removing cream from the surface of milk, fat from the tops of gravies and sauces or frothy scum from broths or jam and jellies during cooking.

To remove the outer coat or skin of a food. Skinning is done for a variety of reasons including appearance, taste and diet. Foods that are often skinned include poultry, fish and game.

To cut food into thin rounds or slices, using a sharp knife or food processor.

Method of curing foods, such as bacon or fish, by exposing it to wood smoke for a considerable period of time.

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A trace mineral essential for maintenance of fluid balance; it combines with chloride to form table salt.

Soft Ball/Soft Crack:
Are candy-making terms that denote what a ball of the candy does when placed in a cup of cold water. A good candy thermometer will have these stages noted on it.

Soluble Fiber:
A dietary fiber that becomes sticky when wet and dissolves in water.

This cereal grass has broad, cornlike leaves and huge clusters of cereal grain at the end of tall, pithy stalks. Sorghum is a powerhouse of nutrition but, though it's the third leading cereal crop in the United States, almost all of it is used for animal fodder. Around the world, however, it's the third largest food grain. A few U.S. mills do sell it by mail order. One sorghum by-product the United States does use for human consumption is the sweet juice extracted from the stalks, which, like that from the sugarcane, is boiled down to produce a thick syrup called sorghum molasses (also sorghum syrup or simply sorghum ). It's often used as a table syrup and to sweeten and flavor baked goods.

Baked dish consisting of a sauce or puree, which is thickened with egg yolks into which stiffly beaten egg whites are folded and cooked. This dish originated in France.

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Pickling food in brine or vinegar; Example : soused herrings.

Taking it's name from the word spago, which means string, so spaghetti means little strings. Spaghetti originally came from Naples, but today it is made in other parts of Italy too, and the length and width vary from one region to another. Numerous different brands, flavours and colours are available, including whole-wheat (integrali), spinach (spinaci), and chilli (peperoncini), so the choice is yours.

Spice Bag:
A closeable fabric bag used to extract spice flavors in pickling solution.

Spin A Thread:
A candy-making term that explains the thread that appears between the spoon and candy when the spoon is lifted and turned.

Revolving skewer or metal rod on which meat, poultry or game is roasted over a fire or under a grill. Process creates high heat and forces fat to spit out of meats.

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To make a series of short explosive spitting sounds.

Spun Sugar:
Fine strands of hardened boiled sugar that are used to decorate various desserts. Spun sugar begins by cooking sugar, water and cream of tartar to the hard-crack stage. A fork or whisk is then used to dip into the sugar syrup and draw out fine threads. These hairlike strands can be placed directly on a dessert or on a waxed paper-lined surface, then transferred later to the dish. Once the spun sugar hardens, it may also be gathered and sprinkled or arranged on top of a dessert. Cotton Candy is a popular form of spun sugar.
Recipes for Spun Sugar.

Additives used to help maintain emulsions or prevent degeneration in foods. Dextrin and gums like Gum Arabic, Gum Tragacanth, Guar Gum and Xanthan Gum are commonly used stabilizers.

A family of bacteria that can cause disease, including skin infections and food poisoning.

A complex carbohydrate that is the principal storage molecule of plants and the major source of carbohydrate and energy in our diet.

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Process whereby food is cooked in the steam rising from boiling water.

To let food stand in (hot) liquid to extract or to enhance flavor, like tea in hot water or poached fruits in sugar syrup.

Destroying germs by exposing food to heat as specific temperatures. Canning foods is a good example of this.

Process whereby food is simmered slowly in a covered pan or casserole.

To mix food gently in a circular movement, usually with a spoon.

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To cook thinly sliced foods quickly in a little very hot oil, in a wok or large frying pan, and stirring constantly.


To insert seasonings, such as whole cloves or garlic, into the surface of a food to infuse it with flavor.

Style or Pack:
Form of canned food, such as whole, sliced, piece, juice or sauce. The term may also be used to reveal whether food is filled raw or hot into jars.

Sucralose (Splenda):
Sucralose is the low-calorie sweetener made from sugar. It is used around the world as an ingredient in processed foods and beverages and in tabletop sweeteners available in supermarkets and other consumer outlets.

Since the maker (a .org status to kill people) and the fda have failed to properly warn everyone on the dangers of this product (corruption is it possible?) The rest of this is to warn the consumer on what sounds good isn't. Granted I know several people who have had no problems with this product, but I know more than that who have had health problems and then they stopped using this and were better.

Made from sugar so it tastes like sugar. Don't believe marketing ploys, they can harm or kill you.

The chemical process to make sucralose alters the chemical composition of the sugar so much that it is somehow converted to a fructo-galactose molecule. This type of sugar molecule does not occur in nature and therefore your body does not possess the ability to properly metabolize it. As a result of this "unique" biochemical make-up, McNeil Nutritionals (the maker of this crap) makes it's claim that Splenda is not digested or metabolized by the body, making it have zero calories.

How Much Splenda is Left In Your Body After You Eat It?

If you look at the research (which is primarily extrapolated from animal studies) you will see that in fact 15% of sucralose is absorbed into your digestive system and ultimately is stored in your body. To reach a number such as 15% means some people absorb more and some people absorb less. In one human study, one of the eight participants did not excrete any sucralose even after 3 days. Clearly his body was absorbing and metabolizing this chemical. That is what our bodies are supposed to do.
The bottom line is that we all have our own unique biochemical make-up. Some of you will absorb and metabolize more than others. If you are healthy and your digestive system works well, you may be at higher risk for breaking down this product in your stomach and intestines. Please understand that it is impossible for the manufacturers of Splenda to make any guarantees based on their limited animal data.
If you feel that Splenda affects you adversely, it is valid. Don't let someone convince you that it is all in your head. You know your body better than anyone else.

More on Splenda.

A sugar composed of glucose and fructose. The sugar obtained from cane and beets; it's also present in honey, fruits, and vegetables.

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Sulfur compounds that are used in food preservation and brewing. These may trigger asthma attacks and moderate to severe allergic reactions.

Superfine Sugar:
Also known as Caster sugar. Pulverized granulated sugar. Can be purchased or prepared at home by whipping granulated sugar in the blender.

To cook cut up vegetables in a little fat over a gentle heat, covered, to dry out their juices.

Sweet Chocolate:
Highly like the composition of semi-sweet chocolate, sweet chocolate has more sugar added and less chocolate liquor.

The process by which new compounds are created from components, such as new proteins assembled from amino acids derived from the proteins in food.

Thick, sweet liquid made by boiling sugar with water or fruit juices.

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