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A Middle Eastern specialty consisting of small, deep-fried croquettes or balls made of highly spiced, ground chickpeas. They're generally tucked inside pita bread, sandwich style, but can also be served as appetizers. A yogurt or tahini-based sauce is often served with falafel.

Changes in food caused by intentional growth of bacteria, yeast or mold. Native bacteria ferments natural sugars to lactic acid, a major flavoring and preservative
in sauerkraut and in naturally fermented dills. Alcohol, vinegar, and some dairy products are also fermented foods.

Fines Herbs:
From France a mix of finely chopped fresh parsley, chervil, tarragon and chives.

Limp, not firm.

1. Method of separating cooked fish into individual flaky slivers. 2. Method of grating chocolate or cheese into small slivers.

To ignite and burn a liqueur, which has been poured over food, to add the flavor of the alcohol.

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This is a term that may be used to describe two different preparations. The first use of this word is describes an open top tart that is filled with pastry cream and topped with fruit. Flan is used in Spanish and Mexican cooking to describe an egg custard that is baked in a large shallow dish, and flavored with caramel. The dish is inverted when served and the excess caramel is used as a sauce for the flan. The flan may be flavored with orange, anise, cinnamon, or liqueur.

Are chemicals that help improve circulation, cut blood pressure, and may provide other health benefits.
Flavonoids are protective antioxidants that are found in chocolate, green tea, and red wine.
The ancient Aztecs sang these words: "I drink chocolate, it makes me happy, my heart rejoices." This may not be a metaphor.

This is used to describe foods that are cooked in the style of Florence. The word is most commonly associated with dishes containing spinach and sometimes a cream sauce. Steak cooked ala Florentine is a large T-bone steak, rubbed with olive oil and garlic, grilled and served with fresh lemon on the side.

To incorporate a delicate substance, such as whipped cream or beaten egg whites, into another substance without releasing air bubble. A spatula is used to gently bring part of the mixture from the bottom of the bowl to the top. The process is repeated, while slowly rotating the bowl, until the ingredients are thoroughly blended.

There are several different types of fondue, the most notable of which is cheese fondue. This is a Swiss specialty in which cheese is melted with wine, eggs, and seasonings and served with bread and fresh vegetables. Fondue Bourguignonne is a pot of hot oil into which the diners will cook strips of meat and dip them into an array of sauces on the table. Similar to this is fondue Chinois where the hot oil is replaced by a rich chicken or meat broth. The meat, and fish too, are then cooked in this stock and dipped in sauces. The Japanese have a dish called shabu shabu, which is similar to this type of fondue. Named for the swishing sound that the meat makes in the broth, this dish is also served with vegetables and noodles in to be eaten along with the meat. A chocolate fondue is a chocolate bath, flavored with liqueur and eaten with bread and fruit, like fresh berries. These are all dishes eaten as much for their social qualities as their culinary grandeur. Their popularity in the US has diminished over the last 20 years, only being seen in ski resorts and at private dinner parties.

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Free Radicals:
Waste products of oxygen metabolism that can damage cell components.

A stew prepared without the initial browning of the meat. Though chicken is the most common form of this type of stew, fish, vegetables, and other meats are prepared in this manner.

Food that has been dipped in batter and deep fried or sauteed. These may consist of vegetables, meat, fish, shellfish, or fruit. The food may be dipped in the batter and dropped into the hot fat to form little balls. Japanese tempura fried foods are a type of fritter, though this term is not applied to it.

1. To coat a cake with an icing of confectioners sugar. 2. To dip the rim of a glass in egg white and caster sugar and then chill in a refrigerator until set.

A naturally occurring, simple (monosaccharide) fruit sugar.

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To cook food in hot fat or oil, either by immersing it completely or cooking in a little fat and turning the food.

An aromatic broth made for use in soups and sauces. The flavor of a fumet is usually concentrated on one item, though multiple ingredients may be used. The stock is then reduced to concentrate this flavor. Fish and vegetable broths are more commonly called fumets, but meat may also be used.

A spiraled spaghetti that can range from 1 1/2 to 12 inches long.

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