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An enzyme needed for the digestion of lactose.

The natural sugar in milk.

A vegetarian who consumes dairy products but no eggs, poultry, fish, meats, or other animal products.

A technique by which thin strips of backfat, or vegetables, are inserted into a piece of meat. These strips help the meat to reman juicy during cooking. Larding with vegetables gives the meat a contrast of color plus the addition of flavor. This practice is not used as often now because of the higher quality of meat available to us.

Another definition:
Is inserting strips of fat, called lardoons, into red meats such as venison roasts so they baste internally. Larding needles, designed to sew fat into meat, are available through culinary catalogs and stores. Even without a larding needle, strips of fat can be insereted into flesh with a fillet knife, but it is tricky. Fowl are traditionally larded at right angles to the breast bone, and roasts across the muscle grain. A rule of thumb is to use about 3 ounces of fat per pound of meat.
Strips of salt pork are traditionally used for larding, but bacon can be substituted if a mild, smoked taste is desired. Some cooks marinate the lardoons in garlic or other herbs before inserting them. Garlic and other seasonings can be rubbed into the fat.
The converse of this is Barding. This is draping fatty strips of pork over game meat while it cooks.

Larding Needle:
A special tool used to lard meats. There are many styles, but the most common is one that has a sharp pointed tip and a hollow body. A long, thin strip of the larding agent (usually pork fat or bacon) is inserted into the tool's hollow cavity and the needle is then used to thread the fat through the meat.

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Lardons, Lardoons:
Narrow strips of fat used to lard meats.
The French also use the term lardon to refer to bacon that has been diced, blanched, and fried.

This is when agents are used to lighten the texture and increase the volume of baked goods such as breads, cakes and cookies. Baking powder, baking soda and yeast are the most common leaveners used today. When mixed with a liquid they form carbon dioxide gas bubbles, which cause a batter or dough to rise during (and sometimes before) the baking process . Some foods such as Angel Food Cake and Sponge Cake, are leavened by the air beaten into egg whites. When heated, the egg whited cook and set, trapping the air set aside and creating a light, airy cake.

Lebkechen Biscuits:
This thick, cakelike cookie is a specialty of Nuremberg and one of the most popular in Germany. It's honey-sweetened, full of spices, citron and almondsand often topped with a hard confectioners' sugar glaze. Lebkuchen has been made for centuries and is often baked in decorative molds to shape the cookie into intricate designs.

A phospholipid constituent of cell membranes and lipoproteins; a natural emulsifier that helps stabilize cholesterol in the bile. Lecithin is not an essential nutrient, because it is synthesized by the liver.

The sediment (dregs) of wine or liquor that occurs during fermentation and aging.

Lentil, split:
Is a variety of hulled or unhulled split lentils. Common Daals are Chana (split chickpeas), Masoor (splti salmon colored red lentil), Mung (split mung beans), Toor or Toovar (pale yellow daal from split pigeon peas) and Urad (split Black mung). A dish made out of lentils is also called Daal. Lentils are very rich in protein and make a good substitute for meat. Before cooking, daals should be sorted, washed and rinsed in water.

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Lentil, whole:
Rich in protein, there are a variety of lentils. Dark brown chickpeas (kala chana), light chickpeas (garbanzo or kabuli), mung beans (olive green), masoor (dark brown), and urad (black).

The process of thickening a sauce, soup, or stew. This includes all rouxs, starch and water mixtures(slurries), beurre manie, and egg yolks with or without cream. Egg yolks must be tempered with hot liquid before adding to the liquid in order to prevent curdling.

To add a protective covering to the base and/or to the sides of a cooking tin or dish.

A fatty compound made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Lipids are insoluble in water. The chemical family includes fats, fatty acids, carotenoid pigments, cholesterol, oils, and waxes.

A combination of a lipid and a protein that can transport cholesterol in the bloodstream. The main types are high density (hdl), low density (ldls), and very low density (vldl).

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Low-Acid Foods:
Foods which contain very little acid and have a pH above 4.6. The acidity in these foods is insufficient to prevent the growth of the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum. Vegetables, some tomatoes, figs, all meats, fish, seafoods and some dairy foods are low acid. To control all risks of botulism; jars of these foods must be (l) heat processed in a pressure canner, or (2) acidified to a pH of 4.6 or lower before processing in boiling water.

Low-Density Lipoproteins (ldls):
These abundant, so-called "bad" lipoproteins carry most of the circulating cholesterol; high levels are associated with atherosclerosis and heart disease.

Lyonnaise Sauce:
A classic French sauce preparation made with sauteed onions, white wine and demi-glace. The sauce is strained before being served with meats and sometime poultry.

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