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This is a French word, which means stew, usually one made of meat or poultry and which is rather thick. In recent years, this word has become a rather clever restaurant menu marketing term because it describe just about any mixture that is somewhat soupy or stew like.

Asian instant-style deep-fried noodles that are usually sold in cellophane packages. Ramen is Japanese, or at least a word born in Japan.

The following history is courtesy of Linda Stradley and her web site What's Cooking America at http://whatscookingamerica.net .

History: Although the true origin of the word is not yet identified, there are two theories: (1) Hokkaido, the northern most island of Japan, where Sapporo-Ramen speaks for itself of its fine "al dente" noodles and rich soup often enhanced with "miso," fermented bean paste, and butter. (2) Another bunch of people insist that the word was born in Yokohama, a port city near Tokyo, where many Chinese people landed around the turn of the century and mostly engaged in port labor of shipping yards. The Chinese created the style of noodle to be cheap and nutritious enough to sustain the hard labor. Among countless types of noodles, or Mien, throughout China, the type of noodle was called "Lao-Mien" or "Liu-Mien" representing the noodles thin willow like appearance. It was adopted in Japanese society as "La-Men."

Ramen is very versatile, you can add tuna with some garlic and onion and you have a main coarse. Be creative, this is a noodle that begs for you to experiment.

Ramp (Ramps):
Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are wild onions, which resemble scallions with broader leaves. They can be found in specialty produce markets from March to June and grow from Canada to the Carolinas. Although the garlicky-onion flavor of ramps is a bit stronger than leek, scallion, or onion, it can often be used as a substitute for any of those three.

Rampe Leaf:
Please see Screwpine Leaves.

Small 3 inch squares (pillows) of pasta dough filled with meat, cheese, or vegetables to form little cushions. They are served with various sauces.

History: According to legend, sailors in Northern Italy invented ravioli. They did not want food to go to waste on the boat so they ground up their leftover dinner and stuffed them in pasta pockets.

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Raw Pack:
The practice of filling jars with raw, unheated food. Acceptable for canning low-acid foods, but allows more rapid quality losses in acid foods heat processed in boiling water.

Raw Sugar:
Sugar that has not been refined. Appears much like coffee crystals. Coarse or raw sugar is more difficult to dissolve. Makes a great garnish.

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA):
Defined as "the levels of intake of essential nutrients considered,...on the basis of available scientific knowledge, to be adequate to meet the nutritional needs of healthy persons." Standards, which are revised periodically, are set between a minimum below which deficiency occurs and a ceiling above which harm occurs to provide a margin of safety.

Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI):
Standards established by the World Health Organization (WHO). RDIs are lower than RDAs, because the WHO experts do not believe stores need to be as high as those recommended by the United States.

Method of preparation whereby a liquid is concentrated in form by boiling and evaporation.

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To run cold water over food that has been parboiled to stop the cooking process quickly.

1. Slowly cooking meat tissues and trimmings to obtain fat. 2. Clearing frying fat by heating it.

A natural enzyme obtained from the stomach of young cows. It is used to curdle milk when making cheese. The need to coagulate milk has been well recognized since Roman times, and this can be achieved by the selective use of certain plants or by extracting the enzyme rennet (chymosin and pepsin) from the fourth stomach of the milk-fed calf.

The following history is courtesy of Linda Stradley and her web site What's Cooking America at http://whatscookingamerica.net .

History: Records for the making of rennet go back to the 16th century. The farmer or smallholder cheese maker would select and slaughter a milk-fed calf, remove and wash the fourth stomach carefully. He would then hang this out to air-dry in which case it would become known as a "vell." There was a regular market for dried vells. It is difficult to ascertain how these vells were first used. However, it is most likely that dried pieces of vells were added directly to the milk, and at later times vell extracts in salt solution were used. Basically, sliced or mascerated vells were soaked in salty water to provide a solution of enzymes. Filtration may have been used for the purification of the final rennet solution. Storing the rennet in a salt solution keeps it in good condition and suppresses any bacteria that might cause deterioration in quality. Such rennets are known as "calf rennets."

In bread-making, to let the dough sit a few minutes before kneading more.

Ribonuleic Acid (RNA):
A substance in every cell that enables the body to develop according to the information contained in the DNA.

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Edible, glossy white paper made from the pith of a tree grown in China. Frequently used for macaroon base. This comes from China.

An important step in removing sediment from Champagne. Bottles are placed in racks and then turned by hand or machine over weeks or months until they are upside down and the sediment has settled on top of the corks. Whereby the sediment is readily removed.

Ringtum Ditty:
A dish of cheese cooked together with bacon, onions, tomatoes, corn and other ingredients.

In bread-making, to leave the dough in a warm place and allow to double in volume.

Cooking method utilizing the oven with radiant heat, or on a spit over or under an open flame.

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Indian corn parched and pounded into a fine powder.

1. Milt of the male fish, called soft roe. 2. Eggs of the female fish, called hard roe. 3. Shellfish roe, called coral because of its color.

To flatten pastry or dough, using a rolling pin..

In Switzerland, the term rosti means "crisp and golden." The term refers to foods (usually shredded potatoes) sautéed in butter and oil on both sides until crisp and browned. A lot like American hash browns.

Rosti, a staple dish in the area of Switzerland bordering Germany, consists of potatoes that are boiled, grated, fried, then baked or grilled into a golden hash, and topped with (of course) cheese. It is considered the national dish of German Switzerland.

Rotating spit used for roasting or grilling meat or poultry.

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A thick sauce similar to aioli, made of dried chiles, garlic, and olive oil. Rouille is traditionally served with bouillabaisse and soup de poisson. Other recipes also add saffron and tomatoes.

A mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews. Though usually made with butter, rouxs are also made with bacon or poultry fats, margarine, and vegetable oil. The mixture is cooked for a brief time to remove the raw taste of the starch from the flour. Longer cooking results in a darker color, which is favorable in Creole cooking where rouxs are cooked for long periods until they reach a dark brown color.

To incorporate fat into flour until the mixture resembles fine breadcrumbs

Is a slice of yeast bread (thick or thin) that is baked until dry, crisp and golden brown. Rusks, plain, sweetened or flavored, are available in most supermarkets.
Rusks are also known as biscotte and zwieback.

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