This is a French word, which means stew,
usually one made of meat or poultry and which is rather thick. In recent
years, this word has become a rather clever restaurant menu marketing term
because it describe just about any mixture that is somewhat soupy or stew
Asian instant-style deep-fried noodles that
are usually sold in cellophane packages. Ramen is Japanese, or at least a
word born in Japan.
History: Although the true origin of the word is not yet
identified, there are two theories: (1) Hokkaido, the northern most island
of Japan, where Sapporo-Ramen speaks for itself of its fine "al dente"
noodles and rich soup often enhanced with "miso," fermented bean paste,
and butter. (2) Another bunch of people insist that the word was born in
Yokohama, a port city near Tokyo, where many Chinese people landed around
the turn of the century and mostly engaged in port labor of shipping
yards. The Chinese created the style of noodle to be cheap and nutritious
enough to sustain the hard labor. Among countless types of noodles, or
Mien, throughout China, the type of noodle was called "Lao-Mien" or
"Liu-Mien" representing the noodles thin willow like appearance. It was
adopted in Japanese society as "La-Men."
Ramen is very versatile, you can add tuna with some garlic and onion and you have a main coarse. Be creative, this is
a noodle that begs for you to experiment.
Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are wild onions, which
resemble scallions with broader leaves. They can be found in specialty
produce markets from March to June and grow from Canada to the Carolinas.
Although the garlicky-onion flavor of ramps is a bit stronger than leek,
scallion, or onion, it can often be used as a substitute for any of those
Please see Screwpine Leaves.
Small 3 inch squares (pillows) of
pasta dough filled with meat, cheese, or vegetables to form little
cushions. They are served with various sauces.
History: According to legend, sailors in Northern Italy invented
ravioli. They did not want food to go to waste on the boat so they ground
up their leftover dinner and stuffed them in pasta pockets.
The practice of filling jars with raw, unheated food. Acceptable for canning low-acid foods, but allows
more rapid quality losses in acid foods heat processed in boiling water.
Sugar that has not been refined. Appears much like coffee crystals. Coarse or raw sugar is more
difficult to dissolve. Makes a great garnish.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA):
Defined as "the levels of intake of essential nutrients considered,...on the basis of available scientific knowledge, to be adequate to meet the
nutritional needs of healthy persons." Standards, which are revised periodically, are set between a minimum below which deficiency occurs and a ceiling above
which harm occurs to provide a margin of safety.
Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI):
Standards established by the World Health Organization (WHO). RDIs are lower than RDAs, because the WHO experts do not believe stores need to be as high as those
recommended by the United States.
A natural enzyme obtained from the stomach of
young cows. It is used to curdle milk when making cheese. The need to
coagulate milk has been well recognized since Roman times, and this can be
achieved by the selective use of certain plants or by extracting the
enzyme rennet (chymosin and pepsin) from the fourth stomach of the
History: Records for the making of rennet go back to the 16th
century. The farmer or smallholder cheese maker would select and slaughter
a milk-fed calf, remove and wash the fourth stomach carefully. He would
then hang this out to air-dry in which case it would become known as a
"vell." There was a regular market for dried vells. It is difficult to
ascertain how these vells were first used. However, it is most likely that
dried pieces of vells were added directly to the milk, and at later times
vell extracts in salt solution were used. Basically, sliced or mascerated
vells were soaked in salty water to provide a solution of enzymes.
Filtration may have been used for the purification of the final rennet
solution. Storing the rennet in a salt solution keeps it in good condition
and suppresses any bacteria that might cause deterioration in quality.
Such rennets are known as "calf rennets."
An important step in removing sediment from Champagne. Bottles are placed in racks and then turned by hand or
machine over weeks or months until they are upside down and the sediment has settled on top of the corks. Whereby
the sediment is readily removed.
In Switzerland, the term rosti means "crisp and golden." The term refers to foods (usually shredded
potatoes) sautéed in butter and oil on both sides until crisp and browned.
A lot like American hash browns.
Rosti, a staple dish in the area of Switzerland bordering Germany,
consists of potatoes that are boiled, grated, fried, then baked or grilled
into a golden hash, and topped with (of course) cheese. It is considered
the national dish of German Switzerland.
A mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews.
Though usually made with butter, rouxs are also made with bacon or poultry fats,
margarine, and vegetable oil. The mixture is cooked for a brief time to remove
the raw taste of the starch from the flour. Longer cooking results in a darker
color, which is favorable in Creole cooking where rouxs are cooked for long
periods until they reach a dark brown color.
Is a slice of yeast bread (thick or thin) that is baked until dry, crisp and golden brown. Rusks, plain, sweetened or flavored, are available in most supermarkets.
Rusks are also known as biscotte and zwieback.